Edinburgh Castle is a fortress which dominates the skyline of the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, from its position atop the volcanic Castle Rock. Human habitation of the site is dated back as far as the 9th century BC, although the nature of early settlement is unclear. There has been a royal castle here since at least the reign of David I in the 12th century, and the site continued to be a royal residence until the Union of the Crowns in 1603. From the 15th century the castle's residential role declined, and by the 17th century its principal role was as a military base with a large garrison. Its importance as a historic monument was recognised from the 19th century, and various restoration programmes have been carried out since. As one of the most important fortresses in the Kingdom of Scotland, Edinburgh Castle was involved in many historical conflicts, from the Wars of Scottish Independence in the 14th century, up to the Jacobite Rising of 1745, and has been besieged, both successfully and unsuccessfully, on several occasions.
Few of the present buildings pre-date the Lang Siege of the 16th century, when the medieval fortifications were largely destroyed by artillery bombardment. The most notable exceptions are St Margaret's Chapel, which dates from the early 12th century and is the oldest surviving building in Edinburgh, the Royal Palace, and the early-16th-century Great Hall. The castle also houses the Honours of Scotland, the Scottish National War Memorial, and the National War Museum of Scotland.
Edinburgh Castle is in the care of Historic Scotland, and is Scotland's most-visited paid tourist attraction, with over 1.3 million visitors in 2011. The British Army is responsible for some parts of the castle, although its presence is largely ceremonial and administrative, including a number of regimental museums. As the backdrop to the annual Edinburgh Military Tattoo it has become a recognisable symbol of Edinburgh and of Scotland.
High above Princes Street, nestled beside Edinburgh Castle, there have probably been dwelling houses for well over 1,000 years. The present buildings, however, only go back to a redevelopment in the 18th century. Since there were no official planning controls in those days, there is a delightful mix of architectural styles, including an octagonal "Goose-pie" house built by Allan Ramsay the poet. There is a beautiful spacious flat, with a panoramic 360 degree view, designed by Sir Patrick Geddes (regarded as the "father" of town planning) which was created to encourage the University professors to return to the "Old Town" of Edinburgh.
The apartments, with their magnificent views over Edinburgh to the river Forth and Fife on the other side of the river, are now privately owned, high priced, luxury dwellings but visitors to Edinburgh Castle will find wandering around on the outside of the complex a rewarding experience. The nearby "Camera Obscura" which was also built by Geddes, offers amazing views of Edinburgh and beyond from the camera which projects its image inside the building.
Thank you Dear Pamela for this lovely card.